Efficacy of Counseling and Water Supply on  the Drinking Behavior and Hydration Status of  Teenagers

Hardinsyah, Dodik Briawan, Endang Sunaryo


Background

Some studies showed that good hydration is important for better health, stamina and cognitive function (Grandjean and Ruud, 1994; Kavouras, 2009; Siener and Hesse, 2003; Lieberman, HR, 2007, Elizabeth at al, 2009).  Reduction of body water about 4 % will reduce 20-30% of physical performance (Grandjean and Ruud, 1994), and reduction in 2-4% of body water disturb cognitive function of school children (Lieberman HR, 2007),

For good hydration the human body requires water for about 1 ml for each kcla of the energy requirement.  A state of negative fluid balance called dehydration, which occurs when the body water decrease 2-6%. The dehydration caused by decreased water intake, increased water output (renal, gastrointestinal, or insensible losses), or fluid shift. The decrease in total body water causes reductions in both the intracellular and extra cellular fluid volumes ( Sawkaw, Cheuvront, Carter  2005).

In the Indonesian Dietary Guideline, it is recommended to drink adequate amount of safe drinking water (Ministry of Health, 2005). In that guideline, for the adult is suggested to drink 2 liters or eight glasses of safe drinking water every day   to accomplish the healthy body and good physical performance.  Although the recommendation already formulated since 1995, however this message was not yet popular in the community.  There is a tendency that people neglect its important roles for health.

For some reasons people are sometimes disregarded the important of water in the human body. They do not realize that drinking not enough water having negative impact on the body functional.  Previous study in Indonesia, called The Indonesian Regional Hydration Study (Thirst) , about half of teenagers (49.5%) and adults (42.5%) suffered from mild dehydration. (Hardinsyah et al, 2009).  Comparing between the two agro-ecological areas, the prevalence of mild dehydration is higher in lowland (53%) of urban area rather than in highland areas (39%).

The Thirst also shown that, the main reasons of the hydration occurred are lack of knowledge on good hydration and lack of access to drinking water. Only 54.0 % teenagers knew about the body required two liters of water every day.  Both teenagers and adults were lack of  knowledge related to the aspect of water function in the body, food as source of water, and dehydration symptoms.   About 95% of teenagers did not know that they need more water when they are in the cold temperature.  The similar study was found in Singapore which the young adults also drink the least amount of fluid. The woman drink water 5-6 glasses and man drink 6-8 glasses every day. Their water intake is lower than the recommendation namely 8 glasses of water every day ( AFIC, 2000). Study in Hongkong showed the same result that 50% subjects drink water less than 8 glasses, and even 30% of subjects drink less than 5 glasses.

Based on above considerations, Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology (FEMA) – Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), in collaboration with Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia are planning to conduct a study the efficacy of Counseling and Water Supply on Drinking Behavior and Hydration Status.  The result of this study is expected to be an input for promoting healthy drinking behavior and good hydration.

Objectives:

  1. To analyze the efficacy of nutrition counseling on increasing knowledge of subjects on drinking water and good hydration
  2. To analyze the efficacy of nutrition counseling on improving behavior of subjects on drinking water
  3. To analyze the efficacy of the nutrition counseling on decreasing the  prevalence of  mild dehydration

Expected Outputs

To gain information on the efficacy of nutrition counseling on increasing knowledge of subjects on drinking water and good hydration behavior, decreasing the problems of dehydration. These information will be useful inputs for promoting healthy drinking behavior and good hydration.